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Long-term analysis of soil water regime and nitrate dynamics at agricultural experimental site: Field-scale monitoring and numerical modeling using HYDRUS-1DPublicationresearch article ;Krevh, Vedran ;Filipović, Lana ;Petošić, Dragutin ;Mustać, Ivan ;Bogunović, Igor ;Butorac, Jasminka ;Kisić, Ivica ;Defterdarović, Jasmina ;Nakić, Zoran ;Kovač, Zoran ; ;He, Hailong ;Chen, Rui ;Toor, Gurpal S. ;Versini, Antoine ;Baumgartl, ThomasFilipović, VilimAgricultural Water Management. Elsevier B.V., 2023, vol. 275, 108039., p. 38-44Intensive agricultural practices increase agrochemical pollution, particularly nitrogen (N) based fertilizers, which present an environmental risk. This study aims to evaluate long-term (2009–2020) data on soil water regime and nitrate dynamics at an agricultural experimental site on fine-textured soils and to better understand the implications of N management in relation to groundwater pollution. The field site is located in the Biđ field (eastern Croatia), in the proximity of the Sava river. Zero-tension lysimeters were installed at six selected locations. Lysimeters were used to monitor the water regime, i.e., outflows in which nitrate concentration was measured, while additional soil-water samples were collected via 4 and 15-meter-deep monitoring wells. Soil hydraulic parameters were estimated by combining the laboratory measurements, and estimation in RETC software. Water regime and nitrate leaching in lysimeters were simulated using HYDRUS-1D for each year to allow crop rotation and to evaluate their effects individually. The HYDRUS-1D model successfully reproduced lysimeter outflows and nitrate dynamics, which was confirmed with high R2 values (water: 93% above 0.7, and nitrate: 73% above 0.7) indicating the good performance of the model simulating nitrification chain reactions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify the relationships among all soil properties and environmental characteristics. The results showed the complex interaction of soil hydraulic properties, precipitation patterns, plant uptake, and N application. All locations have a decreasing trend of nitrate leaching over the investigation period. Most of the lysimeter outflows and elevated nitrate concentrations were connected to the wet period of the year when the soil was saturated, and evapotranspiration was low. The results of this study show that it is important to optimize N fertilizer applications for each particular environmental condition to reduce nitrate loss. The study indicates the importance of long-term field studies, key for agro-hydrological modeling and the improvement of agricultural practices. WOS© IF 6.611WOS© AIF 3.965Scopus© SNIP 2.018 Key Areas of Ecological Restoration in Inner Mongolia Based on Ecosystem Vulnerability and Ecosystem ServicePublicationresearch article ;Feng, Siyuan ;Liu, Xin ;Zhao, Wenwu ;Yao, Ying ;Zhou, Ao ;Liu, XiaoxingRemote Sensing. Basel : MDPI AG, 2022, vol. 14, iss. 12, ARTN 2729., p. 117-165Inner Mongolia is located in China’s arid and semi-arid regions, with sensitive and fragile ecosystems at risk of increased desertification, necessitating ecological restoration. However, economic resources for large-scale ecological restoration are often scarce, so it is vital to identify key areas for ecological restoration. Previous desertification research has focused mainly on the condition and changes in soil or vegetation. However, not all changes in soil or vegetation directly impact humans. New perspectives are increasingly needed to bridge the gap between biophysical and human well-being. We construct a framework to identify priority restoration areas based on ecosystem services and ecosystem vulnerability over a long time series. The results show that: (1) soil conservation services in northeast and southwest Inner Mongolia have degraded. Sand fixation services in central and eastern Inner Mongolia have shown a degradation trend. Habitat quality has been generally stable and sporadic in the past 20 years. (2) The areas with higher ecosystem vulnerability are concentrated in the northeast, mainly due to higher climate exposure and climate sensitivity but relatively lower climate resilience in the northeast. (3) Compared with the results of ecological restoration areas identified based on the trends of traditional vegetation indicators (fractional vegetation cover and net primary productivity), we found a greater proportion of land in northeastern Inner Mongolia in need of restoration. Additionally, there was identified a decreased restoration proportion in southwestern Inner Mongolia to ensure the self-restoration and regulation of desert ecosystems, which is conducive to realizing nature-based solutions. WOS© IF 5.349WOS© AIF 5.369Scopus© SNIP 1.532
- The aim of this work is to study Lithuanian stakeholders’ perceptions of fire impacts in protected areas. For this study, the stakeholders consisted of foresters, ecologists and farmers. A clear understanding of the opinions of stakeholders about fire effects on environmental, social and economic aspects of Lithuanian protected areas will allow an assessment of the stakeholders’ reaction to fire policy, including government measures towards fire prevention, suppression and application of prescribed fire to landscape management. The results showed that stakeholders in general think that fire is not a threat to Lithuania and to the ecological processes in the protected areas. However, they agree that fires have negative impacts on soil properties and fertility but are not to an irremediable or irrecoverable extent. Stakeholders disagree that fire has positive consequences for agricultural and cattle activities but agreed that vegetation recovers quickly. They do not see fire as a social and economic problem, do not agree that prescribed fire could be used to landscape management, and believe that mechanical thinning is a better management tool than prescribed fire. Stakeholders agree that fire does not have negative impacts on the biodiversity. These opinions depended on the age group of the respondent but especially on the respondent’s professional occupation.
WOS© IF 9.787WOS© AIF 2.977Scopus© SNIP 3.271 Assessing oil spill sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments: A case study for Lithuanian-Russian coasts, South-eastern Baltic SeaPublicationThis study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 kmof Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platformoil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludeswith the importance of harmonized datasets andmethodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment. WOS© IF 3.146WOS© AIF 2.734Scopus© SNIP 1.356
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;Oliva, M.Геологія=Geology / Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Київ : Київський університет, 2013, [No] 4(63)., p. 77-80Soil Water Repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils with impacts on soil erosion, water infiltration, superficial and subsurface hydrology, nutrients leaching and plant growth. Purpose: Study the spatial distribution and identify the most accurate interpolation method to estimate SWR in an abandoned agricultural field. Methodology: A plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field every 50 cm. In order to identify the most reliable map, we tested several interpolation methods, as Ordinary Kriging (KRG), Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, Radial Basis Function (RBF) (Inverse, Multiquadratic, Multilog, Multiquadratic, Natural Cubic Spline and Thin Plate, Spline) and, Local Polynomial, with the power of 1 and 2. Findings: The results show that SWR was very heterogeneous, even in small distances, showing that soil hydrological properties can change very quickly in space. The spherical model was the best predictor of SWR and the most accurate interpolation method was the Multilog and the more biased the Natural Cubic Spline. Originality: The test of several interpolation methods in SWR spatial distribution were not explored in detail, and this study represents an advance in this field. Practical value: A better interpolation of SWR and other variables will help to have a better understanding of small scale processes in larger areas. Mapping with a better accuracy will improve models and contribute to a better prediction. Comparative analysis reveals a possible immunity-related absence of blood parasites in Common Gulls (Larus canus) and Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)Publicationresearch article ;Krams, Indrikis ;Suraka, Valērija ;Rattiste, Kalev ;Āboliņš-Ābols, Mikus ;Krama, Tatjana ;Rantala, Markus J. ; ;Cīrule, DinaSaks, LauriJournal of ornithology. New York : Springer, 2012, vol. 153, no. 4., p. 1245-1252Blood parasites often incur a substantial fitness cost to the infected individuals, sometimes resulting in death of the host. Some bird species, however, are apparently free of blood parasites, presumably due to the lack of exposure to blood parasite vectors. Protective immunity may be also responsible for the absence of infections by haematozoa. In this study, we tested the presence of blood parasites in Common Gulls (Larus canus) and Blackheaded Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) nesting in environments with varying vector exposure. We failed to find blood parasites in Common Gulls irrespective of vector exposure, whereas infection rates of Black-headed Gulls were generally very low. We propose that the absence of haematozoa and low prevalence of blood parasites in these species of gulls is probably not a function of vector exposure and suggest alternative explanations such as enhanced immunity. WOS© IF 1.632WOS© AIF 1.204Scopus© SNIP 0.925 El impacto del cultivo, el abandono y la intensificación de la agricultura en la pérdida de agua y suelo. El ejemplo de la vertiente norte de la Serra Grossa en el Este PeninsularPublication[The impact of the farming, abandonment and agricultural intensification on loss of water and soil. The example of the northern slopes of the Serra Grossa, Eastern Spain]research article ;Cerda, Artemi ;Morera, Giménez A. ;Burguet, María ;Arcenegui, V. ;Peñaloza, González F. A. ;García-Orenes, F.Cuadernos de investigación geográfica. Rioja : Universidad de la Rioja, 2012, no. 38(1)., p. 75-94 Scopus© SNIP 0.176 Efectes de les temperatures del foc en les cendres produïdes per algunes espècies vegetals mediterràniesPublication[Efectos de las temperaturas del fuego en las cenizas producidas por algunas especies vegetales mediterraneas]research articleTreballs de la Societat Catalana de Geografia. [Barcelona] : Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 2010, [vol.] 71., p. 53-72The aim of this work is study the effects of the temperature on the ash produced from some Mediterranean species throughout laboratory fire simulations and estimate the effects of prescribed burning. The results show that at the same temperature the severity is higher in Firms than in Quercus species. Also we observed that at reduced temperatures the % of Total Carbon (TC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) could increase, being reduced at higher temperatures. It was observed a significative reduction of the C/N in all species (with exception of Quercus suber) and a significant increase of pH.Electrical Conductivity (EC). In the ash collected in the prescribed fire, it was identified a significative reduction ofTC and C/N and an increase of ashTN, pH and EC.